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Utilizing Command Line Tools

In this learning activity, the student will be provided two CentOS servers to practice the following command line tools, making note of the outputs received and how the commands are used: * ping * netstat * nslookup/dig * arp * ifconfig **Note**: Please wait an additional 2-3 minutes before connecting to the server via ssh.

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Path Info

Clock icon Beginner
Clock icon 30m
Clock icon Jul 23, 2020

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Table of Contents

  1. Challenge

    Understand the Ping Command

    Note: Please wait an additional 2-3 minutes before connecting to the server via ssh.

    First, examine the man page for ping (this can be done on either Server1 or Client1)

    man page ping

    Secondly, from Server1 ping Client1 (Note the output)


    Lastly, play with some of the options of ping (-s to change packet size, -c to change number of packets, etc.). Note how the output changes with each of the options

    ping -s [SizeOfPackets]
    ping -c [CountOfPackets]
  2. Challenge

    Understand the Netstat Command

    First, review the man page on either Server1 or Client1:

    man page netstat

    On either server1 or Client1, you can run netstat --extended to see all available options.

    netstat --extended

    On either box, run netstat to find out what ports have active connections and which are listening



    netstat -a

    Use the grep command in conjunction with netstat to learn more about particular ports, make sure to pick one that has an active connection and one that is listening to note the different outputs:

    netstat | grep [portnumber]
  3. Challenge

    Install bind-utils and Understand the nslookup and dig commands

    To start off, we need to install bind-utils, as dig and nslookup do not ship with vanilla CentOS. This should be done on Server1 as some of the next steps will be taken on this box.

    sudo yum install bind-utils

    After installation, visit the nslookup and dig man pages to gather more information about these commands

    man page dig
    man page nslookup

    Afterwards, from Server1 perform both an nslookup and dig on Client1, comparing the outputs. Notice how dig contains much more information that might be useful to an administrator:

  4. Challenge

    Understand the arp command

    Visit the arp man page to gain more knowledge about arp on either Server1 or Client1

     man page arp

    From Server1, check what information exists about Client1 in the arp table. Note the output.

    arp -a

    Look at the entire arp table, noting output:

    arp -a

    Now, delete the record for Client1 (Only Client1) and check the arp table again. Notice that the entry is still there, but the hardware address is blank

    sudo arp -d
    arp -a

    Ping Client1 to "rebuild" the entry, now check the arp entry for Client1 and notice that the hardware address has been re-entered.

    arp -a
  5. Challenge

    Understand the ifconfig command

    First off, open and review the man page for ifconfig on either device

    man page ifconfig

    On either system, run the ifconfig command, noting the output


    From the output, note your IPv4 address. This IP address should match that of the Private IP address provided above.

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