Tableau is the most popular interactive data visualization tool, nowadays. It provides a wide variety of charts to explore your data easily and effectively. This series of guides - Tableau Playbook - will introduce all kinds of common charts in Tableau. And this guide will focus on the Area Chart.
In this series of guides, we will learn about area charts, both in theory and in practice.
This guide (Part 1) will focus on the theory of area charts:
Here is an area chart example from Aploris. The area chart below shows US energy consumption by source between 1960 and 2014. It uses filled areas to show the contribution of each source to the total energy consumption. While renewable energy sources have grown rapidly in recent years, fossil fuel still dominates US consumption.
Area charts are very useful and visually appealing charts. The premise is that you need to use them properly. In this section, we will discuss the characteristics, usages, pros, and cons of various area charts.
We can think of the area chart as an extension of a line chart. An area chart is great for showing the underlying performances and cumulative impact. From the perspective of visual elements, it fills the area between the plotted line and the axis. Like a line chart, the area chart applies to a sequence of values and should only be used for ordinal data instead of categorical data. Like with line charts, we can use the area charts in both continuous and discrete ways.
The area chart has many variations which apply to different scenarios. I enhanced the graphs from visually to help you clarify the evolution of area charts:
As Drew Skau said:
Line charts and area charts are very closely related. They are both good for time series data. They both show continuity across a dataset. They are both good for seeing trends, rather than individual values.
From the perspective of visual elements, line charts connect data points by straight line segments. Area charts do the same except that the area below the plotted line is filled with color.
Functionally speaking, line charts use lines to represent the trend. Line charts are good at showing multiple different series and comparing them against each other. By comparison, area charts use areas to emphasize the volume. They are not as good at comparing many areas because of occlusion problems. Area charts focus on analyzing the cumulative impact or part-to-whole relation. They are great for showing a total trend with relative performances of individual components of that sum.
Here I want to introduce a famous example from William Playfair, who invented line, area, and bar charts in 1786 and created the pie chart and circle graph in 1801. This chart tells us a story about England's trade exports and imports to and from Denmark and Norway from 1700 to 1780. It is a classic example which combines the line chart and area chart and sees the strengths of both. It shows the trends of the trade by an import and export line. Moreover, it uses the area to illustrate the gap between them.
In this guide, we have learned about one of the most common charts in Tableau - the Area Chart.
First, we started with an example chart. Then we learned the concepts and characteristics of the various area charts. Next, we compared the area chart with the line chart. Finally, we talked about other variations of the line chart.
In conclusion, I have drawn a mind map to help you organize and review the knowledge in this guide.
I hope you enjoyed it. If you have any questions, you're welcome to contact me at [email protected]