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Conducting a Security Assessment

In this lab, we will use security utilities provided with Kali Linux to conduct a risk assessment. The lab provides a subnetwork of Linux and Windows servers to provide a complete VPC for exercising the Kali Linux utilities.

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Path Info

Clock icon Beginner
Clock icon 1h 45m
Clock icon Mar 30, 2020

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Table of Contents

  1. Challenge

    Access the Kali Linux System

    1. Establish a session to the Kali Linux system:

      ssh cloud_user@<KALI_LINUX_PUBLIC_IP>
    2. Change to superuser:

      su -
  2. Challenge

    Identify the Address Assigned to the Ethernet Controller

    1. Query the ethernet configuration on the Kali Linux server:


      Make note of the IP address assigned to the primary ethernet controller.

  3. Challenge

    Use the `nmap` Command to Explore the Subnet

    Use the nmap utility to explore the ports open on the subnetwork.

    For help with nmap commands:

    nmap -h

    To scan a series or range of subnet private IP addresses:

    nmap -sn

    To try other flags to speed the port scanning process:

    nmap -T4 -Pn -n -p- --min-parallelism 50 to 100 -vv --max-retries 0 or 1
  4. Challenge

    Use the hping3 Utility to Analyze a Single Host

    Use the hping3 to scan a certain host on the subnet:


    Note: You may obtain the internal IP address of the host from the lab interface, the output from an nmap command, or the AWS dashboard.

  5. Challenge

    Use `nslookup` to Explore the Nameserver Configuration of Various Hosts

    Use nslookup to explore the A record on


    Use nslookup to look at MX records on

    > set q=MX

    Use nslookup to interrogate other address types:

    > set type=any
  6. Challenge

    Use the dig Tool to Attempt a Domain Zone Transfer

    The syntax for the dig command is:

    dig axfr [domain host] [IP Address To Transfer To]
  7. Challenge

    Use `finger` to Determine Which Users Are Logged into Any Given Host

    Use the finger command to see who is logged in on a host:



    finger -s root

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